Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA − RSA encoding and decoding, using the openSSL libraries

use
Crypt::OpenSSL::Random;

use Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA;

# not necessary if we have /dev/random:

Crypt::OpenSSL::Random::random_seed($good_entropy);

Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA−>import_random_seed();

$rsa_pub =
Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA−>new_public_key($key_string);

$rsa_pub−>use_sslv23_padding(); #
use_pkcs1_oaep_padding is the default

$ciphertext = $rsa−>encrypt($plaintext);

$rsa_priv =
Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA−>new_private_key($key_string);

$plaintext = $rsa−>encrypt($ciphertext);

$rsa = Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA−>generate_key(1024); #
or

$rsa = Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA−>generate_key(1024,
$prime);

print "private key is:\n",
$rsa−>get_private_key_string();

print "public key (in PKCS1 format) is:\n",

$rsa−>get_public_key_string();

print "public key (in X509 format) is:\n",

$rsa−>get_public_key_x509_string();

$rsa_priv−>use_md5_hash(); # insecure.
use_sha256_hash or use_sha1_hash are the default

$signature = $rsa_priv−>sign($plaintext);

print "Signed correctly\n" if
($rsa−>verify($plaintext, $signature));

"Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA" provides the ability to RSA encrypt strings which are somewhat shorter than the block size of a key. It also allows for decryption, signatures and signature verification.

*NOTE*
: Many of the methods in this package can croak, so use
"eval", or Error.pm’s try/catch mechanism to
capture errors. Also, while some methods from earlier
versions of this package return true on success, this (never
documented) behavior is no longer the case.

new_public_key

Create a new "Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA" object by loading a public key in from a string containing Base64/DER−encoding of either the PKCS1 or X.509 representation of the key. The string should include the "−−−−−BEGIN...−−−−−" and "−−−−−END...−−−−−" lines.

The padding is set to PKCS1_OAEP, but can be changed with the "use_xxx_padding" methods.

new_private_key

Create a new "Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA" object by loading a private key in from an string containing the Base64/DER encoding of the PKCS1 representation of the key. The string should include the "−−−−−BEGIN...−−−−−" and "−−−−−END...−−−−−" lines. The padding is set to PKCS1_OAEP, but can be changed with "use_xxx_padding".

generate_key

Create a new "Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA" object by constructing a private/public key pair. The first (mandatory) argument is the key size, while the second optional argument specifies the public exponent (the default public exponent is 65537). The padding is set to "PKCS1_OAEP", but can be changed with use_xxx_padding methods.

new_key_from_parameters

Given Crypt::OpenSSL::Bignum objects for n, e, and optionally d, p, and q, where p and q are the prime factors of n, e is the public exponent and d is the private exponent, create a new Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA object using these values. If p and q are provided and d is undef, d is computed. Note that while p and q are not necessary for a private key, their presence will speed up computation.

import_random_seed

Import a random seed from Crypt::OpenSSL::Random, since the OpenSSL libraries won’t allow sharing of random structures across perl XS modules.

DESTROY

Clean up after ourselves. In particular, erase and free the memory occupied by the RSA key structure.

get_public_key_string

Return the Base64/DER−encoded PKCS1 representation of the public key. This string has header and footer lines:

−−−−−BEGIN
RSA PUBLIC KEY−−−−−−

−−−−−END RSA PUBLIC
KEY−−−−−−

get_public_key_x509_string

Return the Base64/DER−encoded representation of the "subject public key", suitable for use in X509 certificates. This string has header and footer lines:

−−−−−BEGIN
PUBLIC KEY−−−−−−

−−−−−END PUBLIC
KEY−−−−−−

and is the format that is produced by running "openssl rsa −pubout".

get_private_key_string

Return the Base64/DER−encoded PKCS1 representation of the private key. This string has header and footer lines:

−−−−−BEGIN
RSA PRIVATE KEY−−−−−−

−−−−−END RSA PRIVATE
KEY−−−−−−

encrypt

Encrypt a binary "string" using the public (portion of the) key.

decrypt

Decrypt a binary "string". Croaks if the key is public only.

private_encrypt

Encrypt a binary "string" using the private key. Croaks if the key is public only.

public_decrypt

Decrypt a binary "string" using the public (portion of the) key.

sign

Sign a string using the secret (portion of the) key.

verify

Check the signature on a text.

use_no_padding

Use raw RSA encryption. This mode should only be used to implement cryptographically sound padding modes in the application code. Encrypting user data directly with RSA is insecure.

use_pkcs1_padding

Use PKCS #1 v1.5 padding. This currently is the most widely used mode of padding.

use_pkcs1_oaep_padding

Use "EME−OAEP" padding as defined in PKCS #1 v2.0 with SHA−1, MGF1 and an empty encoding parameter. This mode of padding is recommended for all new applications. It is the default mode used by "Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA".

use_sslv23_padding

Use "PKCS #1 v1.5" padding with an SSL-specific modification that denotes that the server is SSL3 capable.

use_md5_hash

Use the RFC 1321 MD5 hashing algorithm by Ron Rivest when signing and verifying messages.

Note that this
is considered **insecure**.

use_sha1_hash

Use the RFC 3174 Secure Hashing Algorithm ( FIPS 180−1 ) when signing and verifying messages. This is the default, when use_sha256_hash is not available.

use_sha224_hash, use_sha256_hash, use_sha384_hash, use_sha512_hash

These FIPS 180−2 hash algorithms, for use when signing and verifying messages, are only available with newer openssl versions (>= 0.9.8).

use_sha256_hash is the default hash mode when available.

use_ripemd160_hash

Dobbertin, Bosselaers and Preneel’s RIPEMD hashing algorithm when signing and verifying messages.

use_whirlpool_hash

Vincent Rijmen und Paulo S. L. M. Barreto ISO/IEC 10118−3:2004 WHIRLPOOL hashing algorithm when signing and verifying messages.

size

Returns the size, in bytes, of
the key. All encrypted text will be of this size, and
depending on the padding mode used, the length of the text
to be encrypted should be:

pkcs1_oaep_padding

at most 42 bytes less than this size.

pkcs1_padding or sslv23_padding

at most 11 bytes less than this size.

no_padding

exactly this size.

check_key

This function validates the RSA key, returning a true value if the key is valid, and a false value otherwise. Croaks if the key is public only.

get_key_parameters

Return "Crypt::OpenSSL::Bignum" objects representing the values of "n", "e", "d", "p", "q", "d mod (p−1)", "d mod (q−1)", and "1/q mod p", where "p" and "q" are the prime factors of "n", "e" is the public exponent and "d" is the private exponent. Some of these values may return as "undef"; only "n" and "e" will be defined for a public key. The "Crypt::OpenSSL::Bignum" module must be installed for this to work.

is_private

Return true if this is a private key, and false if it is private only.

There is a small memory leak when generating new keys of more than 512 bits.

Ian Robertson, "iroberts@cpan.org". For support, please email "perl−openssl−users@lists.sourceforge.net".

Copyright (c) 2001−2011 Ian Robertson. Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

**perl**(1),
**Crypt::OpenSSL::Random**(3),
**Crypt::OpenSSL::Bignum**(3), **rsa**(3),
**RSA_new**(3), **RSA_public_encrypt**(3),
**RSA_size**(3), **RSA_generate_key**(3),
**RSA_check_key**(3)