Date::Format − Date formating subroutines
@lt = localtime(time);
print time2str($template, time);
print strftime($template, @lt);
print time2str($template, time, $zone);
print strftime($template, @lt, $zone);
print ctime(time, $zone);
print asctime(@lt, $zone);
provides routines to format dates into ASCII
strings. They correspond to the C library routines
"strftime" and "ctime".
time2str( TEMPLATE, TIME [, ZONE ])
"time2str" converts "TIME" into an ASCII string using the conversion specification given in "TEMPLATE". "ZONE" if given specifies the zone which the output is required to be in, "ZONE" defaults to your current zone.
strftime( TEMPLATE, TIME [, ZONE ])
"strftime" is similar to "time2str" with the exception that the time is passed as an array, such as the array returned by "localtime".
ctime( TIME [, ZONE ])
"ctime" calls "time2str" with the given arguments using the conversion specification "%a %b %e %T %Y\n"
asctime( TIME [, ZONE ])
"asctime" calls "time2str" with the given arguments using the conversion specification "%a %b %e %T %Y\n"
Date::Format is capable of formating into several languages by creating a language specific object and calling methods, see Date::Language
my $lang =
$lang−>time2str("%a %b %e %T %Y\n", time);
I am open to suggestions on this.
Each conversion specification is replaced by appropriate characters as described in the following list. The appropriate characters are determined by the LC_TIME category of the program’s locale.
%a day of the week abbr
%A day of the week
%b month abbr
%c MM/DD/YY HH:MM:SS
%C ctime format: Sat Nov 19 21:05:57 1994
%d numeric day of the month, with leading zeros (eg 01..31)
%e like %d, but a leading zero is replaced by a space (eg 1..32)
%G GPS week number (weeks since January 6, 1980)
%h month abbr
%H hour, 24 hour clock, leading 0's)
%I hour, 12 hour clock, leading 0's)
%j day of the year
%l hour, 12 hour clock
%L month number, starting with 1
%m month number, starting with 01
%M minute, leading 0's
%o ornate day of month −− "1st", "2nd", "25th", etc.
%p AM or PM
%P am or pm (Yes %p and %P are backwards :)
%q Quarter number, starting with 1
%r time format: 09:05:57 PM
%R time format: 21:05
%s seconds since the Epoch, UCT
%S seconds, leading 0's
%T time format: 21:05:57
%U week number, Sunday as first day of week
%w day of the week, numerically, Sunday == 0
%W week number, Monday as first day of week
%x date format: 11/19/94
%X time format: 21:05:57
%y year (2 digits)
%Y year (4 digits)
%Z timezone in ascii. eg: PST
%z timezone in format −/+0000
%d, %e, %H, %I, %j, %k, %l, %m, %M, %q, %y and %Y can be output in Roman numerals by prefixing the letter with "O", e.g. %OY will output the year as roman numerals.
The functions in this module are limited to the time range that can be represented by the time_t data type, i.e. 1901−12−13 20:45:53 GMT to 2038−01−19 03:14:07 GMT.
Graham Barr <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Copyright (c) 1995−2009 Graham Barr. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.