HTTP::Request

NAME

HTTP::Request − HTTP style request message

VERSION

version 6.26

SYNOPSIS

require HTTP::Request;
$request = HTTP::Request−>new(GET => 'http://www.example.com/');

and usually used like this:

$ua = LWP::UserAgent−>new;
$response = $ua−>request($request);

DESCRIPTION

"HTTP::Request" is a class encapsulating HTTP style requests, consisting of a request line, some headers, and a content body. Note that the LWP library uses HTTP style requests even for non-HTTP protocols. Instances of this class are usually passed to the request() method of an "LWP::UserAgent" object.

"HTTP::Request" is a subclass of "HTTP::Message" and therefore inherits its methods. The following additional methods are available:
$r = HTTP::Request−>new( $method, $uri )
$r = HTTP::Request−>new( $method, $uri, $header )
$r = HTTP::Request−>new( $method, $uri, $header, $content )

Constructs a new "HTTP::Request" object describing a request on the object $uri using method $method. The $method argument must be a string. The $uri argument can be either a string, or a reference to a "URI" object. The optional $header argument should be a reference to an "HTTP::Headers" object or a plain array reference of key/value pairs. The optional $content argument should be a string of bytes.

$r = HTTP::Request−>parse( $str )

This constructs a new request object by parsing the given string.

$r−>method
$r−>method( $val )

This is used to get/set the method attribute. The method should be a short string like " GET", "HEAD", "PUT", "PATCH" or " POST".

$r−>uri
$r−>uri( $val )

This is used to get/set the uri attribute. The $val can be a reference to a URI object or a plain string. If a string is given, then it should be parsable as an absolute URI.

$r−>header( $field )
$r−>header( $field => $value )

This is used to get/set header values and it is inherited from "HTTP::Headers" via "HTTP::Message". See HTTP::Headers for details and other similar methods that can be used to access the headers.

$r−>accept_decodable

This will set the "Accept−Encoding" header to the list of encodings that decoded_content() can decode.

$r−>content
$r−>content( $bytes )

This is used to get/set the content and it is inherited from the "HTTP::Message" base class. See HTTP::Message for details and other methods that can be used to access the content.

Note that the content should be a string of bytes. Strings in perl can contain characters outside the range of a byte. The "Encode" module can be used to turn such strings into a string of bytes.

$r−>as_string
$r−>as_string( $eol )

Method returning a textual representation of the request.

EXAMPLES

Creating requests to be sent with LWP::UserAgent or others can be easy. Here are a few examples.

Simple POST
Here, we’ll create a simple POST request that could be used to send JSON data to an endpoint.

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use strict;
use warnings;
use HTTP::Request ();
use JSON::MaybeXS qw(encode_json);
my $url = 'https://www.example.com/api/user/123';
my $header = ['Content−Type' => 'application/json; charset=UTF−8'];
my $data = {foo => 'bar', baz => 'quux'};
my $encoded_data = encode_json($data);
my $r = HTTP::Request−>new('POST', $url, $header, $encoded_data);
# at this point, we could send it via LWP::UserAgent
# my $ua = LWP::UserAgent−>new();
# my $res = $ua−>request($r);

Batch POST Request
Some services, like Google, allow multiple requests to be sent in one batch. <https://developers.google.com/drive/v3/web/batch> for example. Using the "add_part" method from HTTP::Message makes this simple.

#!/usr/bin/env perl
use strict;
use warnings;
use HTTP::Request ();
use JSON::MaybeXS qw(encode_json);
my $auth_token = 'auth_token';
my $batch_url = 'https://www.googleapis.com/batch';
my $url = 'https://www.googleapis.com/drive/v3/files/fileId/permissions?fields=id';
my $url_no_email = 'https://www.googleapis.com/drive/v3/files/fileId/permissions?fields=id&sendNotificationEmail=false';
# generate a JSON post request for one of the batch entries
my $req1 = build_json_request($url, {
emailAddress => 'example@appsrocks.com',
role => "writer",
type => "user",
});
# generate a JSON post request for one of the batch entries
my $req2 = build_json_request($url_no_email, {
domain => "appsrocks.com",
role => "reader",
type => "domain",
});
# generate a multipart request to send all of the other requests
my $r = HTTP::Request−>new('POST', $batch_url, [
'Accept−Encoding' => 'gzip',
# if we don't provide a boundary here, HTTP::Message will generate
# one for us. We could use UUID::uuid() here if we wanted.
'Content−Type' => 'multipart/mixed; boundary=END_OF_PART'
]);
# add the two POST requests to the main request
$r−>add_part($req1, $req2);
# at this point, we could send it via LWP::UserAgent
# my $ua = LWP::UserAgent−>new();
# my $res = $ua−>request($r);
exit();
sub build_json_request {
my ($url, $href) = @_;
my $header = ['Authorization' => "Bearer $auth_token", 'Content−Type' => 'application/json; charset=UTF−8'];
return HTTP::Request−>new('POST', $url, $header, encode_json($href));
}

SEE ALSO

HTTP::Headers, HTTP::Message, HTTP::Request::Common, HTTP::Response

AUTHOR

Gisle Aas <gisle@activestate.com>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 1994 by Gisle Aas.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.